The wheels are mainly subject to three types of forces::
- the load of the bike and the cyclist;
- impacts from the terrain;
- pedaling torque and braking torque with disc brakes.
The purpose of using spokes that are tangent to the hub flange instead of being radial, is to provide a “spring” effect that absorbs the torsion and transmits the force to the rim to push the bike forward or slow down the cyclist and the bike itself in case of braking.
For road bike wheels all three types of lacing are used, for MTB mainly cross2 and cross3.